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Vertreten sind darüber hinaus zahlreiche andere Konfessionen wie der römisch-katholische Glauben, der Protestantismus, das Judentum , der Buddhismus sowie traditionelle Glaubensrichtungen einiger Volksgruppen. Im Zuge der Internationalen Wirtschaftskrise verlor der Rubel im zweiten Halbjahr rund 20 Prozent seines Wertes gegenüber dem Euro, [] stabilisierte sich aber seither. In der seither umgesetzten Praxis wird wegen der Einschränkung von Grundrechten Russland als Gelenkte Demokratie bezeichnet oder aber mit dem Fachbegriff Autoritarismus umschrieben. Sogar im Kreml gibt es eine Banja. Es bildeten sich Hunderte von politischen Gruppierungen, Splittergruppen, Bewegungen und Parteien, die ein breites politisches Spektrum von Monarchisten bis hin zu Kommunisten abdecken. Dazu trug premier league 2019/14 Fehlen von natürlichen Grenzen bei, was Russland Beste Spielothek in Waakhausen finden Wechselspiel mit der Erfahrung fremder Einfälle dazu veranlasste, die Grenzen so weit auszudehnen, bis natürliche Grenzen einen wirksamen Schutz bilden konnten vgl. In Russland ist der Gesundheitssektor dezentral organisiert. Video-Art ist im modernen Russland sehr beliebt. Durch die Verschmelzung dieser Völker und Konfessionen und die Einflüsse sowohl westlicher wie östlicher Prägungen entwickelten sich aber markante Eigenarten bzw. Tempo wo man nicht weiss ob es Zeitlupe oder echte Geschwindigkeit ist. Wenn du einen Bolzplatz siehst, spricht doch nichts gegen ein kleines Spiel, oder? Margareta Mommsen als in jeder Hinsicht unvereinbar mit Vorstellungen einer eigenständigen Rolle des Parlaments, von tipico football parlamentarischen Mehrheiten sowie vom freien Wettbewerb Beste Spielothek in Berbersdorf-Schmalbach finden Parteien gesehen. Un Perez ist sicher auch unschuldig, den neuen Real Trainer nicht 3 Wochen später hätte öffentlich bekannt machen können. Damit Sie nicht den Überblick verlieren: Diese Staatsholdings unterstehen keiner Behörde, sondern allein dem Präsidenten. Anfang Mai kommen dazu überall in Russland www cala millor de gekleidete Kriegsveteranen zusammen und gedenken der gefallenen Kameraden. Besonders populär sind die in Russland entstandenen Plattformen Vkontakte. Russland belegte Platz 19 in der Rangliste der Länder nach totalem Privatvermögen, einen Platz vor Indonesien und einen hinter Schweden. Mobilnummer Diese Mobilnummer wird bereits verwendet Speichern.

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Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning , and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics.

Russian inventions include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos , further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov , Konstantin Khrenov and other Russian engineers.

Gleb Kotelnikov invented the knapsack parachute , while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lighting , and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today.

Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer , Setun , was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers , inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky , Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs Construction Bureaus that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation.

Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu -series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi -series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history.

With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production.

The crisis of the s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia.

In the s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation.

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev formulated top priorities for the country's technological development:. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world.

Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky , the father of theoretical astronautics.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union , some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified.

Nowadays Russia is the largest satellite launcher. Roscosmos is also developing the Federation spacecraft, to replace the aging Soyuz, it could also take potential crewed mission to lunar orbit as early as In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater.

In , water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was litres per capita per day.

The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia serving the entire Russian population. In all, different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders.

Russia's population peaked at ,, in , just before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mids.

In , Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10, According to the Census, Russia's birth rate is higher than that of most European countries In , in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".

Russia recorded 1,, births, the highest number since , and even exceeding annual births during the period —, with a TFR of about 1.

Vital statistics table below. In August , as the country saw its first demographic growth since the s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach million by , mainly as a result of immigration.

Russia is a multi-national state with over ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions e.

Russian Cossack family in Siberia. Yakuts in Sakha Republic. Northern Caucasus folk costumes: Russia's ethnic groups speak some languages.

Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.

Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English, [] one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station [] and is one of the six official languages of the UN.

Russians have practised Orthodox Christianity since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus , Russia and Ukraine by Saint Andrew , the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.

The latter events are traditionally referred to as the "baptism of Rus'" Russian: Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief dvoeverie in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity.

At the time of the Revolution , the Russian Orthodox Church was deeply integrated into the autocratic state , enjoying official status.

This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it. Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist Russians and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , Lev Kamenev , Grigori Sokolnikov who were indifferent towards Christianity and based on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx with Marxism—Leninism as an ideology went on to form the Communist party.

Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion [] and its replacement with universal atheism.

State atheism in the Soviet Union was known in Russian as gosateizm , [] and was based on the ideology of Marxism—Leninism. Marxist—Leninist Atheism has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion.

Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from to , 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1, priests were killed.

Many more were persecuted. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only.

In the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey.

They found that These findings are in line with Pew Research Center 's estimate that Orthodox Christianity, Islam , Judaism , Buddhism , and ethnic religions are recognised as Russia's traditional religions, marking the country's "historical heritage".

Traced back to the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, Armenian Gregorians and various Protestant churches also exist.

The Russian Orthodox Church was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country.

Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious.

More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha.

Islam is the second largest religion in Russia after Russian Orthodoxy. Buddhism is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia , Tuva , and Kalmykia.

In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state.

On April 26, , for the first time, The U. Commission on International Religious Freedom classified Russia as one of the world's worst violators of religious liberty, recommending in its annual report that the U.

The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.

Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since , major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system.

Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free.

As of [update] , the average life expectancy in Russia was Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.

Since , the year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions.

A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years.

In the s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding.

There are over different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus.

Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music.

Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.

Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.

Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture.

Apart from fortifications kremlins , the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted.

Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.

In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.

In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.

Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in , only sixteen remained by ; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in , thirty were closed and six demolished.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in [] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.

Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism. Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War.

Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.

Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.

The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.

Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.

Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.

By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.

This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time.

By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.

The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.

Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.

In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.

Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.

The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.

The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today.

In —68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.

Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer.

Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.

The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.

Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.

While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.

Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested.

It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of [update] , [] and the second-best in the world. KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe.

Bandy , also known as Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro In and , the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament.

The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro , losing only to the eventual champions Spain.

In , the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship. Larisa Latynina , who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova.

In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from , Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.

The Winter Olympics were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. In the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests.

Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix in and , but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in , as part of a six-year deal.

Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations 51 , the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and athletes caught doping at the Olympics , also the most of any country.

From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up, [] [] [] [] [] with no indication that the program has ceased since then.

This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe , and the first held in Europe since Russia will also host games of the Euro There are seven public holidays in Russia , [] except those always celebrated on Sunday.

Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar , and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones.

Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War.

A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms.

The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire. The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics.

The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations.

The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of Cheburashka is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team.

Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is the national flower , while birch is the national tree.

The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently.

The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country.

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.

In , Russia was visited by The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country.

Moscow displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges.

The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the Winter Olympics.

The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains.

Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tuva.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia disambiguation. Not to be confused with Prussia.

Location of Russia green Crimean peninsula light green [note 1]. Rus' people and Rus' name. Grand Duchy of Moscow. Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union.

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Foreign relations of Russia. List of Russian explorers. Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia.

Energy in Russia and Nuclear power in Russia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Public holidays in Russia and Cultural icons of Russia. Russia portal Europe portal. Retrieved March 27, Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on July 14, Reedie said his organisation "very keenly" felt the need to ensure Russian sport is clean and would "maintain the highest levels of scrutiny on Rusada's operations and independence".

Russia was ordered to meet set criteria before Rusada could be readmitted, which included accepting the findings of the McLaren Report into state-sponsored doping and granting access to Moscow's anti-doping laboratory.

Russia has repeatedly denied running a state-sponsored doping programme and continued to deny full access to and retained control of its Moscow laboratory.

Wada's stance appears to have softened, after BBC Sport revealed details of a compromise suggested by Reedie and director-general Olivier Niggli to Russia's Sports Minister that was eventually accepted.

Professor Richard McLaren, whose report said Russia operated a state-sponsored doping programme, criticised Wada's decision. The Russians didn't accept the conditions so why will they accept the new ones.

The Russians drafted the new ones, so they determined their own re-entry rules and the power to interpret them. They have all the discretion and escapes.

Wada has lost leverage. Senaste parlamentsvalet hölls söndagen den 4 december svensk tid innebär att första vallokalen öppnade lördagen den 3 december kl.

Putin tillsatte därefter Medvedev som premiärminister. Under ryska federationens regering lyder följande federala ministerier, med underlydande myndigheter samt följande centrala federala myndigheter.

Den sjunde vapengrenen, luftförsvarsstridskrafterna, är underställd flygvapnet. Liksom vapengrenarna är även byggnadstrupperna, järnvägstrupperna och NBC -skyddstrupperna direkt underställda försvarsministeriet.

Fullt mobiliserat kunde Ryssland ställa upp total en miljon man. Ryssland har allmän värnplikt för män. I praktiken inkallas ungefär elva procent av de värnpliktiga till grundutbildning.

Den ryska krigsmakten har i fredstid en personalstyrka om en miljon soldater. Rent numerärt har Ryssland fortfarande en imponerande militär arsenal.

Det finns flera bergskedjor i landet, särskilt i dess södra gränsregioner. Uralbergen, som löper i nord—sydlig riktning, tillsammans med Kaukasus, som löper i väst—östlig riktning, utgör gränsen mellan Europa och Asien.

I öster avgränsas det av kusten till Stilla havet och i norr av den till Norra ishavet. Detta är landets rikaste region. I övriga delar av landet är det mindre extremt: Allra sydligaste Ryssland, vid Svarta havs - kusten har subtropiskt klimat.

Av dessa listas växter i landets röda lista De flesta djur som lever i Ryssland hittas även i andra delar av den tempererade och den arktiska regionen.

Efter Sovjetunionens upplösning omvandlades den tidigare centralplanerade, resursslösande och ineffektiva produktionen till en modern marknadsekonomi.

I slutet av talet föll Rysslands statsfinanser samman. Samtidigt genomfördes en serie nya reformer för att stärka landets marknadsekonomi, reglerna för företag förenklades liksom skattelagstiftingen.

Detta kom att leda till att statsbudgeten började visa överskott. Europeiska unionen och Världsbanken har dock inlett projekt för att försöka bygga upp ett mer oberoende banksystem.

Detta underlättade handeln betydligt för Ryssland som till större del öppnades upp för omvärlden. Efter att Sovjetunionen upplöstes övertog Ryssland den största delen av Sovjetunionens internationella förpliktelser.

Till exempel övertog Ryssland Sovjetunionens permanenta plats i FN: Relationen till USA är ansträngd och parterna ses ofta ta motsatta parters sidor vid konflikter.

Rysslands relation med EU är i stora drag god men även tidvis problematisk. I slutet av bröt en konflikt mellan Ryssland och Ukraina ut vilket har skapat en oroande stämning över stora delar av världen och Ryssland har kritiserats för sina ageranden.

Ryssland är ett av de länder i världen som har längst järnvägsnät , Järnvägen drivs av Rysslands järnvägar. Den rysk-ortodoxa kyrkan är landets dominerande kyrka.

Während des Stalinismus wurde in Russisch-Fernost die Jüdische Autonome Oblast mit dem Hauptort Birobidschan gegründet, wo sich allerdings nur wenige Juden ansiedelten. Nach anhaltender Kritik aus der Bevölkerung kehrte Russland am In den Gebieten besteht die parlamentarische Vertretung nur aus einer Kammer. Als ein Fall der Anwendung dieses Gesetzes wurde der Entzug des Abgeordnetenmandates des Jabloko -Politikers Lew Schlosberg bekannt, der von den Beisetzungen wohl in der Ukraine gefallener russischer Soldaten berichtet hatte. Brendon Hartley dagegen schon. Nach eigenen Angaben erreicht die Boulevardzeitung etwa 1,3 Millionen Leser. Ein kleiner russischer Junge bittet Vettel um ein Autogramm. Dies betrifft unter anderen den nördlichen Teil der Taimyrhalbinsel und weitere dort befindliche Inseln. Wegen dieser gewaltigen Ausdehnung gliedert sie sich in mehrere breitenparallele Unterzonen: Die Stärke der Streitkräfte betrug 1. Zur Erholung und zum Entspannen verbringen russische Stadtbewohner die Wochenenden oder ihren Urlaub gerne in einer Datscha , einem Land- bzw. In der seither umgesetzten Praxis wird wegen der Einschränkung von Grundrechten Russland als Gelenkte Demokratie bezeichnet oder aber mit dem Fachbegriff Autoritarismus umschrieben. Das Kollegium wird als Gemeinschaft erlebt und es ist sehr wichtig, diese Gruppenorientierung zu stärken. Die umlaufende Rubelgeldmenge stieg stark an. Religion and the Cultural Crisis Happy Bugs Spielautomat | Casino.com Schweiz India and the West. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps[82] including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote no deposit bonus casino deutsch of the Soviet Union. The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow "Muscovy" in the Western chroniclesinitially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal. Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state. Alexander Lodygin and Pavel Yablochkov were pioneers of electric lightingand Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used juventus turin vs real madrid. They Ruled the Pool: Mythology and folklore Mythology folklore. Today, 25 of the world's top chess players are Russian. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: Spreading of knowledge of languages except Russian. Under ryska federationens regering lyder följande federala ministerier, med underlydande myndigheter samt följande centrala federala myndigheter. Russia took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its Treasures of Egypt™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in Playtechs Online Casinos made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution. The Divine Fortune Spielautomat - wahrlich von Gott gesandt of the Scythians: However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.

This was the team's debut in the tournament, where they faced Australia , Ireland , Italy and the United States in Group C of the tournament.

Being the second-lowest-ranked team in the tournament, Russia performed comparatively well in their opening match, running the USA close in an encounter which was lost 6— This was followed by comprehensive losses against Italy 53—17 , Ireland 62—12 and Australia 68— Rugby league is a growing sport in Russia.

The first Australian rules football clubs in Russia were created in May , with groups starting practice matches in Moscow and Krasnoyarsk within a few weeks of each other.

Both fledgling clubs have been started by an expat Australian, but with the remainder of the playing group consisting of local Russians.

In there are five Australian Football clubs playing in a Moscow competition almost exclusively Russians. The visiting team representing Moscow was the Lazy Koalas.

The result was very lopsided, but the fact that a formal game was played outside Australia at all for such an insignificant sport was considered a success.

Lazy Koalas Moscow defeated Saint Petersburg 13 with the game called off at halftime due to a mercy rule taking effect. Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous tennis players.

In recent years, the amount of top Russian women players has been considerable, with both Maria Sharapova and Dinara Safina reaching number one in the WTA rankings.

The Russian Federation has won the Fed Cup 4 times, in , , and At the Beijing Olympics , Russia swept the women's tennis podium with Elena Dementieva winning the gold, Dinara Safina and Vera Zvonareva the silver and bronze, respectively.

Russia also boasts two former number 1 men's players—Safina's older brother Marat Safin and Yevgeny Kafelnikov. The Russian men won the Davis Cup in and Rhythmic gymnastics is considered one of the most popular sports in Russia.

In addition, it is considered in general that Russia has the best rhythmic gymnasts. There are many rhythmic gymnastics clubs in Russia and the most famous one is the Gazprom School which Irina Viner teaches rhythmic gymnasts in Novogorsk, Moscow, where the Russian National team is also based.

Before the breakup of the Soviet Union in , Soviet gymnasts dominated both men's and women's gymnastics commencing with the introduction of the full women's program into the Olympics and the overall increased standardization of the Olympic Gymnastics competition format which happened in From to inclusive, the Soviet women's squad won almost every single team title in World Championship competition and at the Summer Olympics: Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, they competed together as one nation for the last time at the Summer Olympics as a "Unified Team" winning the gold.

Notable Russian gymnasts include: Swimming is mostly an elite sport for most Russians, however before the dissolution of the USSR , Swimming was an institutionalized and recreational sport and excelled in the Olympic Games competing against East Germany in the total swimming medals table.

Russia has not achieved the same success as that of the Soviet Union nevertheless there has still been a few notable Russian swimmers that excelled, Alexander Popov , a four-time Olympic gold medalist is regarded as one of the greatest sprint freestyle swimmers of all time, [ citation needed ] and the only male swimmer in history to win four individual Olympic gold medals in freestyle events.

Other Notable Russian swimmers in the s and early s include: After the Summer Olympics , Russia's new elite swimmers have shown improved results.

Russia has dominated synchronized swimming at the Olympic Games and World Championships since the Sydney Olympics. Russia has maintained strong results particularly in High jump , Long jump , track athletics , Hurdling , Pole vault , racewalking , Hammer throw , Triple jump , Javelin throw , Heptathlon.

Russia was banned from the World Championships because of state-sponsored doping. The Russian Orienteering Federation Russian: It is a full member of the International Orienteering Federation.

Russia is a boxing country powerhouse with many world title holders, Olympic champions and legends of the sport.

Successful professional and amateur boxers include: Russia has become a key player in sport of Judo , even under the Soviet Union , it has produced multiple Olympic champions and medalists.

The popularity was increased under President Vladimir Putin promoting the sport, and with Russia producing multiple Olympic and World champions.

Notable judokas over the decades include: Mixed martial arts is another popular sport producing many world class international and national fighters.

Other popular martial arts form is Sambo which originated in the Soviet Union. Weightlifting is another successful sport in Russia, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union , Russia ranks 16th in the all-time medal table.

Another popular strongman competition in Russia is Powerlifting , which is akin to a variant evolving from weightlifting.

Maryana Naumova is the youngest World champion and multiple record holders in professional powerlifting tournaments and World championships.

The Soviet Union was the most successful country in the history of wrestling, Russia has continued the tradition and has produced multiple Olympic and World champions.

Wrestling is the most accessible and played out sport for boys and young adults in Russia especially in the Caucasus Republics and regions Chechnya , Dagestan , Karachay-Cherkessia , North-Ossetia , Kabardino-Balkaria , Ingushetia.

Russia has maintained a strong tradition in Fencing since Tsarist Russia where it was a popular sport amongst the Russian elites, it transitioned into the Soviet Union as a sport for the Soviet fencing enthusiasts and became a visible sport for the Soviet people which reached its peak in the s in terms of success and popularity of the Sport in the USSR.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , like the former Soviet Republic of Ukraine , Russia has continued the success in fencing producing multiple World and European Champions.

Successful Russian fencers over the decades include: Chess is a favorite pastime, and a sport that has been dominated by Russians in the post-war — era.

Until the end of the Soviet Union, there was only one non-Soviet champion. Today, 25 of the world's top chess players are Russian. Vitaly Petrov became Russia's first Formula One driver in So far he has driven in F1 for three seasons with the Renault and Caterham F1 teams.

He scored the best result of his career when he finished third at the Australian Grand Prix. Daniil Kvyat made his debut in F1 in He took his first podium finish with a second place at the Hungarian Grand Prix.

Sergey Sirotkin joined the F1 circuit in Lada provided factory support in , with the team running three cars and upgrading to the Lada Priora during the season.

The team's best performances were a pair of sixth places by James Thompson at the Race of Italy. Lada subsequently withdrew from the championship, but they returned in , entering a Lada Granta WTCC driven by Thompson at a couple of race meetings.

Subsequently, they announced plans to contest a full season in The team ran two cars in , with a best result of a fifth place for Thompson in the Race of Russia , and expanded to a three car squad for From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Music and performing arts. Flag Coat of arms Cultural icons. Ice hockey in Russia and Russia men's national ice hockey team. Rugby union in Russia.

Rugby union in the Soviet Union. Rugby league in Russia. Russian martial arts and Sambo martial art. Russia portal Sports portal.

Retrieved 16 December — via Google Books. Retrieved 16 December A Primary Source Cultural Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 19 November Russia Beyond the Headlines.

Fox Sports Australia Pty Limited. Russian racism furore is the latest headache for FIFA". Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 10 August Archived from the original on 21 October Archived from the original on 18 June Handicraft , like Dymkovo toy , khokhloma , gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture.

Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan , kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes.

The clothes of Cossacks from Southern Russia include burka and papaha , which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey.

Crops of rye , wheat, barley , and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass , beer and vodka drinks.

Black bread is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi , borsch , ukha , solyanka and okroshka.

Smetana a heavy sour cream is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki , blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes.

Chicken Kiev , pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus origin respectively.

Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls golubtsy usually filled with meat. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music.

Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli , balalaika , zhaleika , and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands , like Melnitsa.

Russian folk songs , as well as patriotic Soviet songs , constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles.

Russians have many traditions , including the washing in banya , a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna. Many Russian fairy tales and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko Ilya Muromets , Sadko and Aleksandr Rou Morozko , Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov , made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin , also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity.

Since the Christianization of Kievan Rus' for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture.

Apart from fortifications kremlins , the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes , often gilded or brightly painted.

Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.

After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia generally followed that in the Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.

The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau , Constructivism , and the Stalin Empire style.

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology , the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the s.

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in , coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.

In Moscow alone losses of — are estimated at over notable buildings including to listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3, — some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.

In , a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev , condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture, [] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture.

This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles.

In Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down mostly in rural areas and many were demolished.

Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in , only sixteen remained by ; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in , thirty were closed and six demolished.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos , the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow rose to power, Theophanes the Greek , Dionisius and Andrei Rublev became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art.

The Russian Academy of Arts was created in [] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov , Dmitry Levitzky , Vladimir Borovikovsky and other 18th-century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting.

In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov.

In the midth century the Peredvizhniki Wanderers group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.

Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism , showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II.

The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel , Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , and Nicholas Roerich.

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia from approximately to The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism , suprematism , constructivism , rayonism , and Russian Futurism.

Since the s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism.

Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War.

Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country.

Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina , Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny.

Music in 19th-century Russia was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful , who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins , which was musically conservative.

The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era , was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.

Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. During the early 20th century, Russian ballet dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets Russes ' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.

Modern Russian rock music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal , and in traditions of the Russian bards of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava.

Russian pop music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment , the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin.

By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history.

This period, known also as the Golden Age of Russian Poetry , began with Alexander Pushkin , who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time. By the s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres.

The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry , when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism.

Russian philosophy blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers , who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles , who insisted on developing Russia as a unique civilization.

The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky and Konstantin Leontiev , the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism and religious philosophy were other major areas.

Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev , Sergei Bulgakov , and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Following the Russian Revolution of many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov and Nikolay Berdyayev , while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state.

In the s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the s and s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines.

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following , resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin by Sergei Eisenstein.

Dziga Vertov , whose kino-glaz "film-eye" theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism.

The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev , The Cranes Are Flying , and Ballad of a Soldier.

The s and s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov 's and Leonid Gaidai 's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today.

In —68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar -winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace , which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.

Russian animation dates back to late Russian Empire times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm studio was the largest animation producer.

Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano , Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky.

The late s and s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced.

The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival.

Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation.

While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared.

Censorship and Media freedom in Russia has always been a main theme of Russian media. Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics.

Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested.

It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe as of [update] , [] and the second-best in the world. KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe.

Bandy , also known as Russian hockey , is another traditionally popular ice sport. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro In and , the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament.

The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro , losing only to the eventual champions Spain. In , the Russian national basketball team won the European Basketball Championship.

Larisa Latynina , who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.

Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova.

In martial arts, Russia produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from , Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.

The Winter Olympics were held in Sochi in the south of Russia. In the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests.

Formula One is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix in and , but the Russian Grand Prix returned as part of the Formula One season in , as part of a six-year deal.

Russia has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations 51 , the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and athletes caught doping at the Olympics , also the most of any country.

From to , more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up, [] [] [] [] [] with no indication that the program has ceased since then.

This was the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe , and the first held in Europe since Russia will also host games of the Euro There are seven public holidays in Russia , [] except those always celebrated on Sunday.

Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar , and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones.

Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism in the Great Patriotic War.

A huge military parade , hosted by the President of Russia , is annually organised in Moscow on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city or City of Military Glory.

State symbols of Russia include the Byzantine double-headed eagle , combined with St. George of Moscow in the Russian coat of arms. The Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire.

The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem , though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite!

The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations.

The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory of Cheburashka is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team.

Alexander Nevsky , St. Sergius of Radonezh and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile is the national flower , while birch is the national tree.

The Russian bear is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians themselves have accepted it only fairly recently.

The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country.

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga , and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.

In , Russia was visited by The most visited destinations in Russia are Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country.

Moscow displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers , while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North , boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges.

The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia , though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk , Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.

The warm subtropical Black Sea coast of Russia is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi , the follow-up host of the Winter Olympics.

The mountains of the Northern Caucasus contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga -covered mountains.

Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains , and the wild steppes of Tuva.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Russia disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Prussia. Location of Russia green Crimean peninsula light green [note 1]. Rus' people and Rus' name. Grand Duchy of Moscow.

Soviet Union and History of the Soviet Union. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Foreign relations of Russia. List of Russian explorers. Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia.

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Religion in Russia and Consecration of Russia. Russian traditions , Russian jokes , Russian fairy tales , and Russian cuisine. Russian architecture and List of Russian architects.

Russian literature , Russian philosophy , Russian poets , Russian playwrights , Russian novelists , and Russian science fiction and fantasy.

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